Introduction to Anatomy: Summary

 

Lecture 1:

Anatomy/ Physiology/Pathology

Levels of Life:

Organic/ Inorganic

—–> Composition of an Atom: Contains a Nucleus (neutral), Protons (neutral) and Electrons (negative)

—-> Molecules

  • Oxygen: The most mass contained within the body (65%)

Gross Anatomy: Studying anatomy with your eyes instead of a microscope

Organic Molecules: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen.

Inorganic: Does not contain the 4 molecules ( Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen)

Atomic: the basic unit of matter

-Contain nucleus (N)

-Proton (+)

-Electron (-)

*contains 65% Oxygen

Molecules:

-Inorganic molecules. Examples: Rocks

Organic Molecule (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen)

Organic Molecules (C. H. O.N)

The beginning of life known as BIOMEGA MOLECULE: for example carbs, lipid, proteins.

Living creatures contains CELLS:

Cell: basic unit of the living creature. Cells forms tissues

Tissues:

1: Epithelial Tissue

2: Muscular Tissue (skeletal muscles, cardiac muscle, smooth muscles).

*Skeletal muscles are voluntary

*Cardiac muscle and smooth muscles are not voluntary (Involuntary)–continuous contractions and retractions.

Human beings are “Organisms” consisting of many systems in cooperation with each other.

Tissues forms organs such as eyes, ears, nose, brain, stomach, heart, liver

Organs turns into systems tissues such as epithelial, muscular, connective tissue, and nervous tissue.

Connective tissue: blood, lympathic vessel, bone, ligament, tendons, (adipose: fat)

Cerebral Spinal Fluid (C.S.F)

Nervous Tissue: Central Nervous System

Organs forms a system:

For Example: Digestive System:

Food–> Esophagus–>Stomach–>small Intestine–>large intestine–>rectum.

There are many systems such as the respiratory sys, digestive sys, reproductive sys, cardiovascular sys.

Cell Structure:

1: Cell membrane contains bi-layer of phospholipid, and this is because water can enter freely into the cell.

2: Cytoplasm: contains cytosol (a fluid)

3: Nucleus—DNA for duplication.

4: Organelle: subcellular structure contains mitochondria, ribosome, lysosome.

A: Mitochondria: a site to produce energy

B: Ribosome: site for the synthesis of protein.

C: Lysosome: destroys foreign bodies (I.E: viruses).

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